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Destination and Discovery under the Spotlight

Here at Café Direct we are honoured to allow our subscribers a unique tour around the world of coffee. Our coffee subscription offers the opportunity to visit a different country every month and experience what makes that origin special and distinctive. We extensively explore the world for the finest specialty coffee we can find. Although flavour and quality of the coffee are paramount, we also look for inspiring stories of farmers and co-operatives who battle adversity, support their local communities and lead the way for sustainable farming methods.

Discovery Plan This amazing plan offers you a new coffee destination every month. We generally want to have distinct coffees that showcase contrasting flavours and aromas each month so that you are experiencing the complexity of different origins. We believe what makes this journey special is that we are often trying new origins and unique processing methods at the same time as you.

Our customers can also choose from our destination offerings named Bright & Aromatic and Rich & Chocolatey.  We source a new coffee every few months and aim to find micro lots with the highest quality from some of the best producing countries in the world. The offerings have specific flavour profiles that we try and match with regions that best showcase what we are looking for. There are many factors to coffee producing that allows for specific characteristics and nuances to shine through the coffee. These include climate, terroir, variety, altitude, and processing. Each combine to strongly influence the flavours associated with that origin. For example

Bright & Aromatic We generally look for coffees from East Africa. The Great Rift Valley has the perfect terroir to produce complex coffees, with the most distinct & nuanced flavours, bright acidity and clean body. Often the flavour profiles are fruity, floral and tropical.

Rich & Chocolatey – We generally look for coffees from the Americas. South America has the terroir and varietals to produce full bodied coffees, with rich chocolatey flavours that are well balanced with sweet notes of caramel and nuts and often with subtle citrus acidity.

Altitude

Generally speaking the higher the altitude a coffee is grown the more superior flavour it will possess. In hotter climates at lower altitudes trees will thrive, especially in tropical climates. Yet higher temperatures make coffee plants grow more strenuously, increasing the amount of fruits you will harvest. This comes at a consequence to the flavour, becoming diluted through higher leaf quantity. Fast maturing fruits means less sugars can develop within the cherry leading to a lower quality and lack of complex flavours.

Alternatively coffee grown at higher altitudes means colder temperatures. Trees produce less growth and fruit yet they ripen slower and harvest denser beans with concentrated sugars and organic acids that create clear and distinct flavours. Higher altitudes comes with difficulties such as steep slopes and soil erosion making it difficult to hand pick the cherries and manage the fields. Yet those that persist and dedicate to growing at higher altitudes reap the rewards as they produce some of the finest coffees in the world.

Climate

Although coffee originated in the heart of Africa where the climate is tropical and hot, as previously mentioned, the hotter the climate does not equate to better growing conditions. Arabica coffee actually needs a variety of temperatures in which to flourish. Too hot and the plant can languish, making them susceptible to pests and diseases. Too cold the whole crop can be lost. There needs to be an equilibrium of micro climates for coffee plants to thrive. Ideal conditions are warm days with good sun, allowing the sugars inside the fruit to develop. This is combined with cold nights, which prevents the process from happening too fast and underdevelopment occurring. These optimum conditions occur around the equator, which is why East African and Central American producing regions are considered to be the perfect climates to produce the highest quality coffee.

Rainfall

Rainfall is another important element to coffee producing and quality. Arabica requires around 60-100 inches of rain across a period of nine months. After the first rainfalls, the flowering of the plants follows. Rain is needed throughout the growing season as the coffee develops. Once again the equilibrium of micro climates is prevalent as a dry season is essential whilst the coffee is harvested and dried. Countries such as Colombia have such diverse rainfall that they are able to harvest their crops twice a year. Some countries like El Salvador however, have had disastrous harvests in recent years as rainfall has ruined their crops.

Soil

Soil is the last element of what makes the ideal terroir for coffee producing. Each origin has a specific type of soil with different amounts of acids. For example, malic acid is more common in Kenyan coffees which leads to more blackcurrant and apple notes. Coffee needs light soil with gravel or stones to help the plant stay cool and drained from excess rainfall. It also needs an ideal amount of acidity with a pH of 5 to 7 and good levels of nitrogen and potassium. Many of our favourite tasting coffees have been cultivated on volcanic soil, which is considered ideal soil conditions as it possesses special chemical properties, rich in nutrients and high in acidity.

Processing

After the cherries are picked and sorted for under ripe cherries, the coffee bean needs to be removed from the cherry it has developed in and then dried. There are a few different ways farmers approach this process, each one giving the coffee its own unique characteristics, distinct flavours and different balance Most of this stems from allowing the coffee to ferment in either water or its own intensely flavoured cherry skin.

Natural  – The skin is left on and taken directly to the drying beds. Producing countries use this process due to a lack of fresh water supply. In Ethiopia where the method was first implemented it is commonly used with outstanding results and complex flavours that are recognisable around the world. We often look for an Ethiopian natural for our Bright & Aromatic offering. As the natural profiles are often wilder in nature, syrupy sweet mouthfeel, with fruit tones being more like stewed fruits that can resemble a booziness in their structure.

Washed – The skin is removed first, then the bean is left to ferment in a water tank before being dried. Removing the wild and intense fruitiness of the cherry skin leaves you with a coffee that has clarity, clean body and highlighted acidity. Washed coffees tend to have lighter bodies, and more citrus fruits tones shine through which is a natural expression of all the sugars and acid development inside the bean. Our Rich & Chocolatey offerings are generally washed as we want the natural expression of the coffees origin to be exposed without any masking from additional fruity flavours from the cherry skin.

Female farmers and their fight for communities and equality.

Since the dawn of time throughout many cultures, there has been a deeply rooted stereotype of what makes a farmer. From the first farmers in ancient Mesopotamia to the cowboys of 1800s America. Farmers were said to represent patriarchy, stoic masculinity and be the providers for the family. The role of the farmer has always been looked at through a male gaze, with prejudice towards their female counterparts. We believe it’s time to shine a light on the incredible work women do producing outstanding coffees, and the gender inequality they still face as farmers.

There is a common misconception surrounding female farmer’s participation in the coffee industry. Women ‘’make up around 43% of the labour force in the developing countries’’ according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO). Moreover in coffee fieldwork that number is 70%, where farmers often hand pick and sort the cherries. This is one of the most important jobs as a farmer, as it decides the level of quality and consistency of the final cup.

Although women are heavily represented in fieldwork, they are massively misrepresented when it comes to land, training and business. With little influence in decision making, crop analysis and trading. Women own just 15% of land for farming, of which 25-35% of all coffee farms are run by women and in terms of training. Women receive only 5% of the relevant training available.

According to the FAO “Just giving women the same access as men to agricultural resources could increase production on women’s farms in developing countries by 20 to 30 percent’’.  A study by Mckinsey & Company states ‘’if every country match the progress toward gender parity of its fast moving neighbour, global GDP could increase by up to £12 trillion in 2025’’.  As these studies have highlighted if the equality for female farmers continues to improve, the impact of empowering women will stretch past economic and farming improvements and into the community with massive sociological developments.

Kofi Annan stated ‘’When women are fully involved, the benefits can be seen immediately, families are healthier, better fed, income and investments go up, and what is true of families is true of communities and eventually whole countries’’. This statement refers perfectly to the positive impact of the Sholi co-operative in Rwanda, our latest destination from our coffee subscription.

Abateraninkunga ba Sholi Cooperative translates to “Mutual Assitance’’and Sholi was borne out of a women’s association called “Kundwa”, which means “love” in Kinyarwanda. Nearly half of Sholi’s 386 members are women, including two of the five board members. Since it was established in 2008, the cooperative has worked closely with its members to improve both their coffee and the greater community. In 2016, Sholi received grants to build health and community centres for its residents. It’s great to see in this female cooperative continue to grow in size, quality and give back to the people.

There is still a long way to go until gender parity is achieved. Many coffee producing countries are still underdeveloped and belong to the 40 countries who have extremely high gender inequality, according to The UN’s human development report. However, there are many outstanding initiatives and alliances across the world that are enabling women to prosper and achieve incredible results in the coffee industry. The International Womens Coffee Alliance was set up to ‘’empower women in the international coffee community to achieve meaningful and sustainable lives […] to encourage and recognize the participation of women in all aspects of the coffee industry’’. Many of these initiatives are global networks connecting women in coffee to share, support and learn from one another.

We have also been regularly supporting the Muungano co-operative throughout the years. A women’s co-operative in DCR Congo. Muungano is a beacon of hope in a region that struggles with social turmoil, epitomizing its name which means “togetherness” in Swahili. The co-op set up the GALS initiative (Gender Action Learning Systems) where female and male members have the opportunity to work together highlighting the imbalance of their roles and benefits of addressing it. Empowering women to take equal part in the responsibilities and management of their households and finances gives them a voice and confidence to take equal part in the cooperative. 

Red de mujeres is another female co-operative that we return to year after year for their outstanding coffee. This producers group is made up of all 830 women. All with inspiring stories of hardship and abandonment of spouses after the civil war and coffee crisis. With the help of ACODIHUE, they trained in organic farming methods and marketing techniques. Empowered and united they became a stronger business. All whilst improving community services and protecting the farms, forests and livelihoods of everyone who stayed during adversity and who are now flourishing.

There has never been a more important time to support female farmers. Especially in an industry that will struggle with the problems posed by climate change and the ageing community of coffee farmers. Training women within the coffee industry and raising awareness for gender equality will increase productivity and could unlock an extra 30 billion cups of coffee per year, as suggested by the International coffee organization. However it is about much more than coffee productivity. It is teaching farmers about diversity, gaining second incomes from small holdings, environmental conservation, leadership skills and sustainable farming practices.

All reasons why Cafédirect will always support females whether they are workers, farmers or producers. We not only pay Fairtrade we also donate to Producers direct, an affiliated charity. This money and support is reinvested into not only the farmers and their development but also the wider communities and nations as a whole.

Climate Change – its effects on coffee production and the industries response.

Coffee production from farmer to consumer comprises a huge industry and provides livelihoods for around 100 million people worldwide.  In the UK alone we drink 85 million cups of coffee a day. With the industry being valued at 10 billion per year. On a wider world-scale coffee production is a crucial proportion of many countries export, that without could mean devastating economic consequences for those nations. In recent years there have been vast problems with coffee production due to issues such as disease, pests, droughts. These issues are rapidly rising as a result of climate change.

Kew Gardens have been at the forefront of wild plant conservation and research since the mid-1800s and have been researching wild coffee species for over two decades. Most of their research has been undertaken in Ethiopia, the birthplace of Arabica coffee. Dr Aaron Davis has recently published a journal outlining the drastic effects climate change will have on the production of coffee across the world. Dr Aaron Davis states that Arabica coffee is now considered an endangered species as are 60% of all known wild species of coffee. This is due to the effects of deforestation, climate change and increasing severity of fungal diseases. Kew gardens research also found ‘the current conservation measures for wild species are inadequate to ensure the long term future of coffee’.

Due to the unique collection of exclusive varieties that reside in Ethiopia, several case studies have been undertaken there by Kew. In 2012 they projected ‘climate changes effects on wild species in Ethiopia would decrease them by 85% by 2080’. This has severe ramifications when finding new species that are climate tolerant to crossbreed. Past species that have become successful in mainstream coffee production have all come from Ethiopia, the chances of this happening again are becoming less probable.

In 2017 this projection became even gloomier for coffee farmers as the Kew team predicted ‘climate changes effects on Ethiopia’s coffee production would mean 60% of the land used could become unsustainable for use by end of the century’. These are stark warnings of the effects rising temperatures, rainfall shortages and deforestation will have on the industry. Yet this is nothing new as Asia has in recent history suffered complete devastation to its coffee production due to warmer climates allowing fungal diseases such as leaf rust to thrive and wiping out plantations.

What are the experts, farmers and buyers of coffee doing to restore and maintain the sustainable production of coffee?

Kew’s research and projections are trying to ‘help (farmers) better understand the risks so that appropriate intervention and planning measures are put in place such as assisted migration, forest preservation and regeneration’. One farm that we have regularly supported in Ethiopia is Kayon Mountain. The farm, owned by Ato Esmael, was established with the aim of producing coffee that is socially and environmentally responsible. The farm is organically certified where only animal dung is used for fertilizer. The heirloom coffee trees are planted under a natural canopy of protected trees, which creates a vital ecosystem for all surrounding wildlife to flourish.

This social and environmental awareness is crucial in today’s climate, as mass deforestation for farming and industry has destroyed many communities and habitats, this none more so than Brazil. Edio Miranda, a producer we have recently supported, is concerned about making his coffee production as sustainable as possible. Caring for the maintenance of the soil, preservation of rivers and local species by keeping “green runways” along the property. It is vital that future generations share this focus and objective to become a sustainable business in all three aspects: economic, social and environmental.

Rarely do we hear or see the incredible work experts around the world are doing to resolve the possible threat of coffee extinction. It is important to understand the threats climate change poses to coffee. Coffee needs an equilibrium of hot days and cold nights to increase and then extend the development of sugars inside the cherry. Crops can withstand the predicted rises in temperatures resulting from climate change, but only if there is enough water available to the crops. This is where the problems arise.

Warmer temperatures and longer hot seasons result in less rainfall and varying seasons needed for coffee production. The majority of wild species adapt to survive their environments. Developing climate-resistant attributes due to dry conditions, shorter wet seasons, or their adapted to humid wet conditions and are tolerant to disease. This is where the idea of ‘crop wild relatives’ was introduced. Using wild species and related plants that have genetic resources capable of providing disease, pest and climate resistance. Once found cross-breeding these genes into the vulnerable Arabica species can take place.

This has already famously happened within the coffee industry with the introduction of a wild species from Ethiopia named Coffea Canephora. The species ‘possessed certain genes that were utilized from wild coffee diversity to resolve production issues’. They found the wild species had adapted to warmer climates, lower elevation, and easier production with high productivity.  Its resilient attributes and strong taste inspired its industry name of Robusta. There have been some less successful attempts of cultivating wild species. Coffea Liberica species showed all the signs of an incredible equivalent to Arabica with great yields, good climate and diseases tolerance, however, it tasted horrible. The one consequence to the introduction of Robusta is that it was such a success (now equates to 40% of all coffee production). The desire to keep researching and finding the next Robusta was neglected, which the industry is paying for now.

There is some hope as an elusive species Coffea Sterophylla which was last seen in Sierra Leone in 1954, and deemed extinct has been found by Dr Aaron Davis in 2018. One of the last known plants was rescued from an area severely threatened by deforestation. Although not known how much it can help with cross-breeding or cultivation for coffee production, it is deemed an exciting discovery as the species is famous for exquisite flavours that surpass Arabica.

Knowing what farmers and experts are doing, what can us as consumers do to help?

Although we may feel far removed from the situation, problems and solutions, it is important as consumers that we are more aware of where our coffee comes from. The environmental impact its journey to your cup has had on the planet is vitally important.

See if the company you buy from has full traceability back to the farm or producer. Look out for organic certification and whether any deforestation has occurred in the coffees production. See if the farmers have taken any initiative to improve their environmental sustainability. Coffee is forest grown so there’s a natural incentive to retain the forest and bio-diversity it contains by planting shade trees. Most importantly see if the company you buy from are paying fairtrade. The lack of profitability is another huge issue for farmers and means they are unable to invest in not only environmental and sustainable farming practices but also their families and communities.

Here at Cafédirect, we are 100% committed to buying Fairtrade coffee that is largely organic certified. We give 50% of our profits to our affiliated charity Producers Direct. Who support farmers to improve their organic sustainability and farming methods, in the hope that improving their quality, means increased profits and income, that can be reinvested into their farms and surrounding environments. We also take great pride in showcasing the amazing work the producers we buy from do for the wildlife, ecosystems and natural environment on their farms.

How we decide on your new coffees?

What is our philosophy?

There are many stages and variables when deciding on which coffee we want to buy and present to our customers, with most of our offerings representing a certain philosophy of sourcing coffee:

Origin Based – London Fields Range. Focused offerings from a handful of origins, highlighting the range of flavours from each origin and exploring their specific attributes and characteristics.

Profile Based – Bright & Aromatic, Rich & Chocolatey. Quality and flavour profile expectations independent of origin, expect the coffee to live up to these standards without certain origin restrictions.

Seasonality Based – Discovery Subscription. This is a self-imposed limitation, by offering a new coffee each month with a coffee subscription, we have to make sure the coffee is freshly harvested and in season.

Producer Based – Machu Picchu. Develop your coffee offerings around specific producer relationships, they will take on your feedback to improve the coffee to match our desired flavour profiles.

Sourcing

After deciding on what we would like our coffees to accomplish it is time to start sourcing. We have strong relationships with producers at origin who value our business and feedback and we will often receive a selection of their favourite harvested coffees. Often they have experimental processing methods that the farmer wants to showcase. If you do not have a direct trading relationship with a producer you have to start your search through your importers.

Importers will regularly release their offer lists. Here you will find a variety of coffees with prices, varietal, processing method and harvest date. All of which have a significant impact on the final price of a single coffee. Each coffee comes with tasting notes, helping you narrow down your search when looking for certain flavour profile. When we are looking for a specific origins characteristics we contact importers who specialise in that region as their expertise and knowledge are concentrated on quality over quantity.

Freshness

Freshness is a vitally important variable when deciding our destination and discovery offering. A coffees freshness is affected by the time it takes from the coffee being picked and processed to when it enters the roastery for sampling and cupping. The is due to the journey being long and arduous for all parties involved in the chain.

Often coffee can be waiting in sacks at origin, where heat can drain the coffee of its moisture and damage the quality of the bean. It can also spend large amounts of time at sea and stuck in containers at customs around various ports. This can lead to water from the ocean or moisture coming in contact with the sacks of coffee, creating an undesirable mouldy flavour.

There is also time coffee spends in warehouses waiting to be bought or released to customers. The longer the coffee spends inside its sack the more its exposed to moisture irregularity. Coffee can begin to take on the taste of the sack itself. This taste is often referred to as ‘bagginess’ and resembles cardboard. On a good run coffee takes around 3 months from processing and transportation to importer warehouses. Therefore we tend to look for coffees that have just landed in Europe or been in the warehouse for 2-3 months in order for the coffee to be fresh and untainted by unwanted flavours.

Sampling

When receiving a selection of samples in the roastery, we first have to evaluate the bean in its green form. This includes reading its moisture content, which should be between 9% and 12%. Visually checking the samples for defects, this is a good way to find out if the coffees journey has had a negative impact on the beans.

The next stage is very important with a series of decisions to be made. The two most important being; is the coffee any good? Is it worth the money being asked for by the producer? In order for coffee to be evaluated on a level playing field, we standardise the roasting on our sample roaster. The darker you roast will increase negative changes in coffees flavour and aroma, therefore we roast all of our samples to a light roast. This will expose the coffees flavours and aromas it possesses from its variety, process and terroir. This allows each sample to be evaluated on its own merit rather than on roasting.

Cupping

Cupping is a protocol that allows buyers and roasters to taste and compare many samples from different farms, regions and countries evaluating them in an objective manner. The samples need to be prepared in exactly the same way so that any differences between cups can only be due to the nature of the bean and not the brewing. First we dry evaluate the ground coffee. Next we add water for the coffee to brew, then break the crust that forms on the top. This process is where we best judge and score the captured aromas.

The coffee needs time to cool so that our taste buds can pick up the diversity of flavours. As taste buds are less sensitive at higher temperatures. This is one reason why specialty coffee gets more flavourful as it cools. During cuppings you will hear a range of slurps. This sprays the coffee over your palate and allows air to the coffee so that the complex flavours and aromas can be picked up by different taste buds in your mouth.

Over the first few sips you get a sense of the physical attributes of the coffee such as its smooth, light, boozy or heavy body. As it cools we begin to pick up nuanced flavour notes. This appreciation of the coffees is subjectively judged, we score each of the coffee out of 100. Any defects will decrease the score dramatically. Whereas clearly defined acidity and flavours, excellent structure and balance will make the coffee score higher.  An excellent standard is 84+ and is generally a benchmark score for our destination and discovery offerings. Any score below 80 is considered non speciality and tends to be a generic coffee flavoured drink that lacks sweetness and acidity.

Purchase and Testing

From this cupping a diverse discussion will follow and agreeing or disagreeing with one others opinions is incredibly valuable. If there is a coffee that we all love and find common tasting notes and characteristics and it matches our budget and philosophy this will tend to be the coffee we purchase. This is then where the fun part starts for us as roasters, we can take the coffee to our big roaster and start to test roast, which is followed by a repeat of the cupping process and discussions so we can innovate and improve until we unearth the positive attributes and flavours that we loved when first tasting and deciding.

How to Store Coffee Beans

To get the most from your the coffee beans in your coffee subscription, it is important to store them correctly.

This involves placing your beans in a container which limits their exposure to the elements. By doing so, you will enjoy coffee that tastes better and remains fresh for much longer.

In this guide, we will identify a couple of options for coffee bean storage and the best way to store coffee beans. We will also explain how long you can store coffee beans and identify the symptoms of stale coffee, which will help you avoid accidentally drinking bad coffee.

Avoid exposure to sunlight and other elements

So, what is the best way to store coffee beans? The answer is any way that avoids exposure to sunlight, moisture, heat, and oxygen. These elements can be damaging in the following ways:

Sunlight

Ultraviolet light can cause the molecules in coffee beans to break down or change structure. It can also cause evaporation, robbing your beans of the valuable components they contain which give them aroma and flavour.

Moisture

Coffee beans are hygroscopic, which means that they are capable of absorbing moisture. Once they have absorbed moisture from the environment, it will begin to dissolve the valuable molecules the beans contain.

Heat

Keeping coffee beans at temperatures above 25 degrees can speed up how quickly they age, bringing oils to the surface prompting the release of CO2.

Oxygen

Exposure to oxygen causes coffee beans to oxidise. Oxidisation is a chemical process that changes the molecules in the bean responsible for flavour and aroma.

The best way to store coffee beans is inside an opaque airtight container that is stored at room temperature (20 to 25C or 68 to 77F). This will reduce the amount of air, light, moisture, and heat reaching your beans.

The best place for storing coffee beans is in the back of a cupboard, where the temperature is stable and the container is not exposed to light.

Coffee bean storage options

Coffee beans can be stored in any kind of airtight and opaque container. You could, for example, use a plastic canister, metal box, ceramic pot or another container that can form a seal and keeps them safe from sunlight.

However, if you really want to keep your beans fresh, you could use a vacuum storage canister. They are airtight containers that use a hand pump to remove oxygen. By removing the oxygen from the canister, you can slow the rate of oxidisation, which means the beans will stay fresh for longer.

It is also a good idea to use the smallest possible container as this also helps limit the amount of oxygen that will be in contact with the beans.

Some canisters will have one-way vents which are designed to emit the gasses produced by freshly roasted beans. These kinds of canisters can be useful if you often purchase your beans directly from roasters.

How long can you store coffee beans?

Many factors go into determining the best way to store coffee beans, including how the bean was grown, harvested and processed. Unroasted coffee beans (also called green coffee beans) have the longest lifespan at just under a year.

Green beans last a longer time because the molecules and oils that give them their wonderful flavour and aroma remain protected by the bean’s outer layer. Once roasted, these compounds are exposed to the environment and begin to degrade rapidly.

Freshly roasted coffee beans will remain at ‘peak’ freshness for 4 to 5 weeks. However, they will remain enjoyable for up to 3 months. After this point, most people will find that the bean’s flavour and aroma will be so degraded that it won’t produce an enjoyable cup of coffee.

Freshly ground coffee has a much shorter lifespan than whole coffee beans because it has smaller coffee granules which will oxidise faster. The finer the grind, the faster it will oxidise. This means a very finely ground coffee will only remain at ‘peak’ freshness for a few minutes and will remain enjoyable for a couple of days. Medium or coarse ground coffee can remain at peak freshness for a couple of days and will remain delicious for up to 4 weeks.

What about storing beans in the freezer?

Many people believe that coffee beans should be stored in the freezer as it is a very cold and dark environment. The logic seems sound — they will be away from oxygen and sunlight. Also, the low temperature might actually help the bean stay fresh?

Unfortunately, storing fresh coffee beans in the freezer can have some negative consequences. The biggest problem is potential exposure to moisture, which will quickly damage the integrity of the beans, causing them to go stale faster.

Coffee beans coming out of the freezer may also develop a flat flavour profile as the cold temperature can affect the bean’s chemical structure. Storing them in the back of a dark, cool cupboard is always a better option.

So, how do you know if coffee beans are stale?

Being able to spot stale beans can say you the hassle of brewing some old beans and discovering that your brew tastes like an old shoe! Some of the warning signs that indicate your beans are stale include:

Appearance

Sadly there is no way of telling if a coffee is fresh or stale by its appearance. You are going to have to rely on your sense of smell and taste!  

Smell

Freshly roasted coffee beans will have a powerful aroma. Depending on the type of coffee you are smelling and its roast profile, you may smell various aromas of fruits, florals, cocoa, chocolate, nuts, wine, and spices. Stale coffee beans typically have a weak aroma that is quite bland.

Taste

Finally, you can assess the freshness of the bean by its taste. A fresh bean will have strong flavours while stale beans will be quite bland and possibility bitter or sour.

Thanks for reading our guide. For more useful coffee guides bookmark our website or follow our blog!

Coffee Brewing Methods

The humble coffee bean is one of the most versatile ingredients on the planet. A single bean from a specific country and farm can be brewed in many different ways with varying techniques to unlock the hundreds of diverse and distinct flavours, textures and aromas that are locked away inside the roasted coffee bean.

To help you learn about the versatility of coffee beans, this post will share with you several different brew methods and divulge into the when, how, why surrounding these skills and techniques that open the door to a complex and fascinating world of making coffee. And by the end, we hope this will help you understand and identify the most convenient, enjoyable and tasty way to make a delicious cup of coffee that suits you.

The Bloom

Throughout this journey through history and the many different brewing methods that have been invented along the way, we will be explaining the varying techniques used to brew coffee.

Amongst these instructions there will be a recurring use of the term ‘bloom’, to put it simply this term is the fast release of gas that occurs when hot water comes into contact with coffee grounds.

You can visually see this reaction occurring as little bubbles will appear and pop all across the coffee grounds once saturated in water. To bloom your coffee you must pour between 30g-60g of water evenly across your coffee grounds at the start of your brew, or less scientifically pour boiling water until the coffee grounds are submerged.

This is important for your brew to taste the best it can, as without this process the gas will be releasing throughout the extraction and this prevents certain flavours and aromas from being extracted from the coffee grounds creating a flat and sometimes lifeless cup of coffee.

Tip: Brewed coffee consists of 90% water, therefore we recommend you try and use the best water possible. You will be amazed by the contrast in quality between filtered and unfiltered water. With the prior creating a clean, complex and vibrant cup of coffee whereas the former can often mask many flavours and aromas in a cup of coffee. A simple and cheap charcoal stick does a great job filtering water for your morning brew.

Espresso

The Espresso coffee machine was invented in 1884 by Angelo Moriondo, however, it didn’t take off in popularity until the early 20th Century. This big breakthrough came with

Achille Gaggia’s invention, which used a large lever, compressing a spring which when released, creates a large amount of pressure forcing boiling water through the coffee.

The end result was a small, strong and well-extracted cup of coffee which used a far finer grind size than any other brew method. Today, we can see a dramatic improvement in the knowledge, coffee equipment and techniques used in brewing espresso shots, resulting in a coffee that can be complex, full-bodied and sweet. And has now shaped the foundation for each new wave of coffee that has passed over recent years, and is the most popular and primary method of brewing for coffee shops of all different styles and quality around the world.

Forming the basis for a wide variety of many consumers’ favourite drinks from an intense macchiato to a silky smooth latte.

Just a word of warning to anyone who is interested in using the espresso machine to make your morning coffees at home, making a great espresso requires dedication, attention to detail, and consistency.

But if a new hobby interests you the effort is always worth it. The espresso shot is a combination of pressure and resistance, as the speed at which the water flows through the coffee determines how much flavour is extracted. This is why grind size is pivotal to the process producing your desired tastes and results.

If your grind is too fine then the water will struggle to pass through the bed of coffee creating a cup with too little liquid that is sour, astringent and over-extracted. If it’s too coarse the water will rush through the bed of coffee too fast creating a cup with too much liquid that is bitter, weak and under-extracted. Both of these results create an unbalanced and unpleasant tasting coffee.

Brew method

If brewing espresso at home we highly recommend using scales for consistent and accurate results. These are rough guidelines and can be altered according to preference and desired tastes.

  • Remove your portafilter from the group head, flush the group head with boiling water for a few seconds. Empty the portafilter and make sure there is no leftover coffee grounds or moisture.
  • Measure out 18g coffee into the portafilter, make sure your grounds are evenly spread across the basket by tapping the edges where the majority of your coffee sits until it is level.
  • Tamp the coffee using a hand tamper to firmly and evenly compress the grounds. This will force out any air pockets and create a longer extraction. Make sure the rim of your portafilter is clean as this will cause an uneven extraction.
  • Lock the portafilter into the group head by twisting it from left to right until tight, then place your cup underneath.
  • Immediately after start your water flow and timer, the coffee should drip slowly for 3 to 5 seconds, before a faster, thicker and even flow of coffee follows. We recommend a guideline of 30 seconds extraction time and 36g of end weight of coffee in your cup.

Tip: The key to brewing espresso is to stay loyal to your brew method, by keeping as many variables such as time and start/end weight consistent and only changing one variable at a time, such as the grind size. You will find it easier to understand what needed altering or keeping the same in your recipe to create the desired flavours you want in your espresso.

Stovetop

Moka pots (such as the Bialetti stovetop) have connotations of being a throwback to a more rustic way of preparing and drinking coffee, with traditionalist drinkers savouring the bitterness caused by extremely high water temperatures extracting bitter compounds in the coffee, whereas many others dislike this brewing method for those exact reasons.

This method of brewing has many similarities to the espresso, due to the strong, heavy-bodied and rich cup of coffee it produces.

However, it is important to not also confuse the brewing methods as being the same as a result of these similarities. For example, you don’t use a fine grind in a stovetop, as you would for an espresso machine.

A fine grind works in espresso machines because of the high speed and pressure of coffee extraction. Because the stovetop is slower and applies less pressure during the extraction, a fine grind or a slight amount of over brewing past boiling point will lead to a sharp increase in bitterness.

If you’re meticulous and attentive, however, these little contraptions can produce some beautiful, strong coffee that’s not the intense and sharp drink you get from an espresso machine.

Brew method

  • Wipe, clean and dry your Stovetop’s filter before brewing. Then fill the bottom chamber of the Stovetop with water just off the boil up to the bottom pressure release valve.
  • Fill the Stovetop’s filter basket to the top with coffee and gently level off without compressing the grounds, then place the filter basket into the bottom chamber.
  • Screw the top and bottom chambers of the Stovetop together carefully.
  • Place the Stovetop on a stove plate or gas burner with the heat at about 75% or a flame just big enough to cover the base.
  • Pressure built up by steam allows the extraction to occur. The water from the bottom chamber will make its way to the top chamber, passing through the coffee grounds.
  • When you hear a hissing, bubbling sound, the extraction is done, this should take 2minutes. Remove from the heat source quickly, in order to not over-extract the brew.

Tip: To get the best results from your stovetop to choose a light espresso roast or coffee grown at lower altitudes, this will avoid an overly bitter brew.

French Press

The French Press, is one of the most popular and accessible brewing methods for coffee, with the majority of homes having one either proudly sat next to the kettle or tucked away in a cupboard gathering dust.

In some ways, it is underrated for it is reliable, repeatable and super easy to brew at home and it’s perfect for making multiple cups of heavy-bodied coffee either for yourself or a group of friends.

Its classic and well-engineered design hasn’t changed much since its invention in 1929. Ironically despite the common use of the name, it was an Italian named Attilio Calimani who first invented the French Press.

However, a very similar brewer had been invented and patented first by two Frenchmen, Mayer and Delforge, in 1852 which may suggest why the name stuck.

A French Press is an infusion brewer, where the water and coffee steep together and over time you get a more uniformed extraction as all the coffee grounds have equal contact with the water and flavours are extracted evenly, the beauty of this method is the longer your extraction time the richer and more full-bodied our brew will be without creating any undesired bitterness.

Brew method

  • To begin, you must pour boiling water into your empty vessel, this helps maintain the temperature while brewing for best extraction.
  • Next, measure out 50g of ground coffee, or around 6 tablespoons to a grind size as course as caster sugar.
  • Now your French Press is warmed, discard the water and add your coffee. Start your timer and add boiling water to half way, saturating all the grounds and allow the coffee to bloom.
  • After 1 minute use a large spoon to break the top layer of crust and stir well. Next, fill your vessel all the way to the top and allow the coffee to brew for around 4-6 minutes (the longer you’re prepared to wait for the better your brew will be).
  • Finally, we recommend giving the plunging a miss, as once your coffee has brewed the grounds have settled to the bottom and you’re left with a clean and sludge free brew that is still filtered by the mesh filter and has a pour-over style body and mouthfeel.

Tip: By pressing down the plunger you are agitating the settled grounds and creating the muddy texture often associated with the French press.

Pour over

This method can be seen to describe a number of different brewing methods, the most common being the simple but effective V60, an inverted cone shaped funnel that water slowly drains through over time, whilst others include the Kalhita and the Chemex.

All pour over methods require a slight variation in brewing style whether that be grind size, pouring technique or what type of filter material you use, however, they all have a common factor which is they brew by percolation, meaning that the water passes through a bed of coffee extracting flavour along the way.

The invention of the paper filter is credited to a German entrepreneur, Melitta Bentz in 1908 whose family still sells and produces coffee brewing equipment.

The filter method has come a long way and has since been credited with encouraging the industry to move away from the percolators and batch brewers which create a bitter brew to the tastier, lighter and cleaner brew you get from a pour over.

It is widely considered the best method to fully represent and appreciate the complex flavours and aromas you find in a coffee bean. When using your pour over it is important to remember that you can accentuate and manipulate the strength, flavour and body of the coffee by increasing the time the water is in contact with the coffee grounds.

This can be achieved through the grind size and the speed at which you pour. Just like sand, the finer the beans are ground the slower the water flows through the coffee, extending the brew time and increasing the amount of extraction taking place.

Brew method

  • Begin by folding your filter into a cone shape, place into the V60 coffee dripper and cover the V60 filter paper with boiling water, this eliminates any paper flavour and warms up your server.
  • Next, discard your rinse water, and add 20 grams of ground coffee, around 3 tablespoons to a grind size as fine as salt.
  • Start your timer and saturate the grounds with 50g of water or enough water to cover the grounds. Let it bloom for 30 seconds as the coffee raises up and the bubbling begins to reside.
  • Pour your water in a slow, spiral motion adding water every 30 seconds and after each pour give the V60 dripper a gentle swirl which allows for an even coffee bed and extraction. Once your brew time reaches 2 minutes all your water should be added to the coffee grounds and your final pour weight should be 300g if you’re using a scale.
  • Leave your final pour of water to drain slowly through the coffee grounds by which point your brew time should be around 3 minutes, you can go slower or faster however this may create over or under extraction in your final cup.

Tip: Although we give specific weights for coffee grounds and water to be used within each method, a general guideline for water to coffee ratio is usually 60g coffee : 1000g water.

  • V60 for a single serving 20g coffee : 300g water.
  • V60 for multiple serving 30g coffee : 500g water.

Aeropress

The Aeropress coffee maker is one of the most recent phenomenon in the world of coffee brewing, its newfound popularity stems from it being both affordable, portable and versatile.

The Aeropress was invented by engineer Alan Adler, who also brought us the Aerobie Frisbee, and the Aeropress has fittingly inspired ingenuity in varying brew methods for the device.

This creativity has influenced many professionals in the industry to test their own skills and techniques with the Aeropress at the yearly Aeropress World Championships. The beauty of this device and method of brewing is that its simplicity and durability mean whether you are a professional or home brewer you can produce a coffee that is sweet, full-bodied and complex whether you are at home or on the road, it’s also very handy if you don’t have a scale.

The fascinating thing about the Aeropress is that it combines two different brew methods. Initially, the coffee and water steep together, as they would in a French press.

However, to complete the brew, a piston is used to push the water through the grounds and then through an Aeropress paper filter – which is a combination of both espresso and filter coffee-making methods, this explains the variety of techniques and flavours that have been discovered using this ingenious brewing device.

Brew method

This device consists of a screw cap filter, paper filter and two tubes, one which is used for the immersion of coffee grounds and water and extracts flavour, the other is used to as a pressurised plunger.

  • To begin this brew you need to weigh out 17g of coffee, or one rounded Aeropress spoonful, and grind your coffee as fine as table salt.
  • Prepare the Aeropress by preheating the brewer and rinse the filter with boiling water, this removes any paper flavours and keeps your brew warmer for longer.
  • Next, discard your rinse water, add your coffee, and as you begin to pour start your timer and bloom your coffee for 30 seconds by covering all your grounds evenly up to the No.1 mark.
  • After 30 seconds and your coffee has stopped bubbling pour the rest of your boiling water to the No.4 mark on the chamber, give it a quick stir so all the grounds are evenly saturated.
  • At the 2 minute mark of your brew, you are ready to place the plunger on top of your brewed coffee and gently press down with steady pressure, stopping as soon as you start to hear a hissing sound.

Tip: To extract more flavour and produce a stronger coffee push a little harder on the plunger, allow the coffee to steep in the water for longer or grind the coffee finer.

You can also visit our online shop for a range of coffees, coffee subscriptions (including our ‘Roaster’s Choice’ decaf coffee subscription), coffee gifts and coffee equipment.

Iced Coffee Recipe

Iced coffee is the perfect drink to enjoy when the weather is warm. It is refreshing, delicious, and will give you a burst of energy to help you get through the day.

In this post, we explain how to make iced coffee a simple yet enjoyable beverage, especially on a hot day.

Did you know…

The largest iced coffee ever brewed was made in Las Vegas in 2010. It was 1,500 gallons of delicious iced coffee (not including ice)!

So what is iced coffee?

Iced coffee was first developed in the 1840s in Algeria when coffee drinkers began enjoying coffee syrup mixed with water in the warmer months. It quickly spread through Europe and by the late 19th Century it was available in most European restaurants.

By the 1920s, the popularity of iced coffee had exploded in both the United States and Europe. Today, iced coffee is one of the best-selling coffee beverages.

There are dozens of variations of iced coffee found in different countries around the world but we’re going to focus on the simplest version.

Ingredients needed

This is an extremely simple recipe for iced coffee that is delicious and easy to make.

  • 200ml strong black coffee
  • 50ml milk
  • Ice
  • Maple syrup (optional)

How to make iced coffee: step-by-step instructions

  • Brew a strong cup of coffee using your favourite brewing method
  • Wait until your coffee is cold, then pour it into a blender with milk and 2-3 handfuls of ice. Add a squirt of maple syrup for sweetness if you wish. Blend until smooth and foamy.
  • Serve in a chilled tall glass. Yum!

Thanks for reading our article on Iced Coffee Recipe. For more coffee articles and recipes, read our blog!

You can also visit our online shop for a range of coffees, coffee subscriptions (including our ‘Roaster’s Choice’ decaf coffee subscription), coffee gifts and coffee equipment.

Photo by Marco Verch.

Cold Brew Coffee Recipe

Cold brew coffee has dramatically increased in popularity in the past few years. It is a simple way to make coffee which produces a very smooth and sweet brew. Not only is cold brew coffee delicious, but it also contains less acid than a regular cup of coffee, which is useful if you sometimes experience coffee-induced heartburn.

If you want to give cold brew a try, you’ll be happy to learn that making cold brew coffee is easy.

In this post, we share a few of the benefits of cold brew coffee and how to make cold coffee.

Firstly, what is cold brew coffee?

Often confused with iced coffee, cold brew coffee is usually brewed using cold water instead of hot water while the opposite is for iced coffee usually being brewed with hot water.

The finished product for cold brew coffee has a different flavour compared to coffee brewed using hot water as the bean’s chemical profile changes in different ways during the brewing process.

Coffee that is cold brewed tends to be naturally sweeter and smoother than coffee brewed with hot water. That’s because cold brewing doesn’t generate the bitter-tasting compounds that are created when ground coffee is heated.

Why do people drink cold brew coffee?

There are many reasons as to why this cold beverage is growing in popularity, here are a few reasons:

Cold brew coffee is easy to make

It only takes a few minutes to prepare a large batch of cold brew coffee. Once you have a bottle of cold brew in your refrigerator, you can pour yourself a glass in seconds. You won’t have to spend hours perfecting your coffee making technique as you might when working with an espresso machine!

Cold brew coffee is less acidic

As mentioned earlier, cold brew coffee is less acidic than traditionally brewed coffee. This is handy if you suffer from heartburn or you are trying to reduce the number of acidic foods that you ingest.

Cold brew coffee has a smoother flavour

The first thing you will notice when drinking cold-brewed coffee is how smooth it tastes. It’s smoother because cold brew doesn’t heat the coffee bean, which can cause the release of several bitter-tasting compounds including bitter oils, esters, ketones, and amides. Without those compounds dominating your brew, you will get enjoy a much sweeter cup of coffee.

Flexibility over coffee strength

By changing the steeping time and dilution, you can precisely alter the strength of your coffee. If you want a strong coffee, you will be happy to learn that cold-brewed coffee can be made EXTREMELY strong by simply brewing it longer and changing the dilution ratio.

How To Make Cold Brew Coffee: Step by Step Instructions

Making cold brew coffee is surprisingly easy. The simplest method for making cold brew coffee is as follows:

Step 1: Gather your ingredients and equipment

To make cold brew coffee, you will need:

  • 80 grams of coarsely ground coffee
  • One litre of water
  • Two containers with lids, each large enough to hold your cold brew
  • Coffee filters or cheese cloth
  • A funnel (optional, can make it easier to transfer coffee between containers)

Step 2: Combine your ingredients

Pour the ground coffee and water into one of the containers and give it a stir. Ideally, your container should be filled as close to the top as possible and it should have a lid to limit the amount of oxidation that occurs during brewing.

A large mason jar with a lid works well for making cold brew coffee. Some people use a French press for brewing their cold brew, simply wrapping the top in plastic wrap to seal it.

Step 3: Brew

Let the coffee steep for at least 12 hours (at room temperature). You can place your container in the fridge while it is steeping if you like, but that will extend brewing time to between 15 to 17 hours.

Step 4: Strain your cold brew coffee

Strain your cold brew coffee into your other container, passing it through a coffee filter to catch the spent coffee granules. It is now ready for consumption. Most people will keep their cold brew coffee in the refrigerator to maximise its lifespan. If properly sealed, your cold brew coffee will last for 1 to 2 weeks.

Step 5: Drinking cold brew

Cold brew coffee can be enjoyed in several ways:

Straight Up

If you like your coffee strong, drink it straight from a glass.

Iced

If its a warm day, add a few ice cubes and enjoy instant iced coffee

Iced Cold Brew Latte

Add some ice cubes and a small amount of milk (sugar optional)

Diluted

If the brew is too strong, add a splash of water and have it Americano style.

Cold Brew Soda

Mix some cold brew with soda water, almond coffee syrup, and ice

Pro-tips: cold brew ratios

Remember, there are two factors that go into determining how strong your cold brew coffee will be:

  • The ratio between coffee and water
  • How long you leave the brew to steep for

You can play with the ratio of coffee to water to obtain a coffee that you enjoy. Most people find that 80 grams of coffee to one litre of water is the sweet spot for cold brew.

However, if you are planning to add milk to your cold brew, you might prefer to a stronger ratio like 120 grams per litre of water, for more flavour.

We hope you enjoyed reading about how to make cold brew coffee – why not give it a try using on of our coffee subscription plans?

Coffee Ice Cream Recipe

Coffee is a versatile ingredient that can be incorporated into cakes, biscuits, chocolates, lollies, and best of all – ice cream! Coffee ice cream combines the sweetness of ice cream with the rich flavour of coffee, in the best way possible.

It’s surprisingly simple to make a high-quality coffee ice cream at home. In this post, we share an easy ice cream recipe that tastes just like old-fashioned ice cream.

This recipe combines custard with heavy cream and coffee to create a ridiculously creamy treat that your friends and family will love.

Coffee ice cream recipe ingredients

To make coffee iced cream, you will need:

  • 600ml of whole milk
  • 540ml of double cream
  • 300g of granulated sugar
  • 1 pinch of salt
  • ½ cup fresh brewed coffee
  • 6 egg yolks
  • 1 ½ teaspoons vanilla extract
  • An ice cream maker

If you want a larger batch of coffee ice cream (and let’s face it, who doesn’t!?) then simply double the ingredients we listed above.

How to make coffee ice cream: step by step instructions

Here are detailed instructions on how to make coffee ice cream. There are also simplified instructions further down the page. It involves three simple steps:

Step 1: make a custard base

The first step for making our easy coffee ice cream recipe is to create a coffee custard. It is a basic combination of a ½ cup of coffee, 300g of sugar, 600ml of milk, and a pinch of salt. You can use decaf coffee for this recipe if you prefer — which might be a good idea if kids are going to be eating it.

Next, whisk your egg yolks in a small bowl and slowly pour half of the hot milk into the eggs as you continue whisking. You can then pour the eggs and milk back into the saucepan. Don’t pour the eggs directly into the hot saucepan, as they will scramble.

Continue cooking the custard over medium heat until it thickens, which will take about 5 minutes. Stir occasionally to ensure the custard doesn’t stick to the pan.

Step 2: refrigerate your custard

Next, refrigerate the custard. However, before doing so, remove any lumps contained within the custard. Even if you were careful to not scramble the eggs, you may have still made a couple of lumps. Strain the custard through a fine mesh sieve into another plastic or glass bowl.

Cover your bowl with plastic wrap, ensuring that the plastic is touching the surface of the custard (to prevent a skin forming). Place the custard into the refrigerator for at least two hours.

Step 3: churn your ice cream

To finish your ice cream off, you will need to whisk the custard, ice cream, and vanilla together before placing it into your ice cream machine for churning. Once your ice cream has finished churning, enjoy it immediately or place it in the freezer in an airtight container. It should keep for about two weeks.

Pro-tips for making homemade coffee ice cream

Here are a few additional pro-tips to help you make the best coffee ice cream possible:

Use high-quality ingredients

Don’t skimp on your ice cream ingredients. Use free-range eggs, high-quality milk, and the best coffee you can find (hint: you’ll find plenty with our Handpicked coffee subscription).

Add additional flavourings early

If you have some ideas for additional flavourings like choc chips or hazelnut syrup, add them when the cooked custard has cooled. This will ensure their flavours remain strong in the final ice cream. This is particularly true of alcoholic flavourings and extracts.

Chill your custard well

Make sure the custard is ‘very’ cold before churning. Some people will even keep their custard in the refrigerator overnight before churning.

Freeze your bowl

Some ice cream makers will have a detachable mixing bowl. If your does, pop it in the freezer so it is very cold before you start churning.

Keep mix-ins small

If you decide to add nuts or other additions to your coffee ice cream, make sure they are fairly small. It’s also a good idea to chill any additives before through them in.

Thanks for discovering how to make coffee ice cream with us! For more posts on the many ways you can use coffee, visit our blog.

Which Country Produces the Most Coffee?

Coffee has become a huge business and so it is of little surprise that it is now one of the leading commodities worldwide.

Popular at breakfast tables and with a coffee shop seemingly on every corner, it is easy to see why coffee production has become such a big business.

With climates varying from country to country, coffee bean growing isn’t suitable for everywhere. This means that there are some stand-out coffee producing countries in the world who are able to produce much more than others.

So, with this in mind, let’s take a look at the top coffee-producing countries in the world.

Brazil

We start our list with Brazil.

Brazil is, quite simply, the largest coffee producer in the world. For example, in 2016 it is thought that 2,595,000 metric tons of coffee beans were produced in Brazil alone.

Interestingly, Brazil has been the highest producing country for coffee for over 150 years with 27,000 square km of land dedicated to growing the beans!

Vietnam

Surprisingly to some, another one of the main coffee producing countries is Vietnam.

Vietnam’s coffee production has grown drastically in recent years, in 1975 it only produced 6,000 tons. To compare, in 2016 the country produced 1,650,000 metric tons.

Colombia

When you think of coffee, you might instantly think of Colombia and there is a good reason for this.

The coffee produced in Colombia is world-famous. Over recent years, however, the temperature, and the rainfall has risen slowly. This has meant that the type of bean that is usually produced in Colombia hasn’t been able to grow as well.

Despite this, Colombia still managed to produce 810,000metric tons of coffee beans in 2016, which puts it third in the rankings.

Indonesia

Next, we move back to South East Asia. Although not traditionally known as a producer of coffee, Indonesia is estimated to have produced over 660,000 metric tons back in 2017.

Ethiopia

Ethiopia takes fifth place, producing 384,000 metric tons in 2016. Ethiopia is also considered to be the home of Arabica coffee, one of the most popular types available on the market.

As a product, coffee exports are considered an extremely important part of Ethiopia’s economy and was even estimated to be worth 34% of the country’s total exports in 2006.*

Other Countries

Honduras, India, Uganda, and Thailand are some of the other countries just outside of the top five. With so many countries involved in coffee production, the world is seemingly spoilt for choice!

Here at Cafédirect, we have over 20 years of experience of working directly with farmers from around the world and are therefore able to offer speciality handpicked coffee.

Why not start your coffee subscription with us and enjoy some of the world’s best tasting coffee delivered fresh to your door!

Sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee_production_in_Ethiopia

https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/top-coffee-producing-countries.html